Electrical shocks act like vaccines to guard crops from viruses

agriculture: The expansion of crops, animals or fungi for human wants, together with meals, gasoline, chemical compounds and drugs.

aspirin: A typical non-prescription drug, also referred to as acetylsalicylic acid. For greater than a century, it has been broadly used to deal with complications, joint ache, muscle ache, toothaches and extra. It additionally reduces fevers and irritation. Historic papyrus texts point out that so long as 5,000 years in the past, the Sumerians and Egyptians have been utilizing willow bark (the supply of aspirin’s lively ingredient) to deal with aches and pains.

chemical: A substance fashioned from two or extra atoms that unite (bond) in a hard and fast proportion and construction. For instance, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical system is H2O.

compound: (usually used as a synonym for chemical) A compound is a substance fashioned when two or extra chemical components unite (bond) in fastened proportions.

copper: A metallic chemical aspect in the identical household as silver and gold. As a result of it’s a good conductor of electrical energy, it’s broadly utilized in digital units.

COVID-19: A reputation given to the illness that erupted into a large world pandemic in 2020. It first emerged in 2019 and is brought on by a brand new coronavirus often called SARS-CoV-2. Signs in folks can embrace pneumonia, bother respiration, feeling too drained to stroll various steps, fever, complications, low blood-oxygen ranges, blood clots and mind “fog.”

crop: (in agriculture) A sort of plant grown deliberately grown and nurtured by farmers, corresponding to corn, espresso or tomatoes. Or the time period may apply to the a part of the plant harvested and offered by farmers. 

protection: (in biology) A pure protecting motion taken or chemical response that happens when a species confronts predators or brokers that may hurt it. (adj. defensive)

electrical present: A stream of electrical cost — electrical energy — normally from the motion of negatively charged particles, referred to as electrons.

electrical energy: A stream of cost, normally from the motion of negatively charged particles, referred to as electrons.

engineering: The sector of analysis that makes use of math and science to resolve sensible issues.

expression: (in genetics) The method by which a cell makes use of the data coded in a gene to direct a cell to make a specific protein.

gene: (adj. genetic) A phase of DNA that codes, or holds directions, for a cell’s manufacturing of a protein. Offspring inherit genes from their mother and father. Genes affect how an organism seems and behaves.

genetic: Having to do with chromosomes, DNA and the genes contained inside DNA. The sector of science coping with these organic directions is named genetics. Individuals who work on this subject are geneticists.

highschool: A designation for grades 9 by way of 12 within the U.S. system of obligatory public schooling. Excessive-school graduates might apply to schools for additional, superior schooling.

immune: (adj.) Having to do with immunity. (v.) In a position to thrust back a specific an infection. Alternatively, this time period can be utilized to imply an organism exhibits no impacts from publicity to a specific poison or course of. Extra typically, the time period might sign that one thing can’t be damage by a specific drug, illness or chemical.

immune system: The gathering of cells and their responses that assist a plant or animal battle off infections and take care of international substances.

infect: (n. an infection) To unfold a illness from one organism to a different. This normally entails introducing some kind of disease-causing germ to a person.

irritation: (adj. inflammatory) The physique’s response to mobile harm and weight problems; it usually entails swelling, redness, warmth and ache. It is also an underlying function chargeable for the event and aggravation of many ailments, particularly coronary heart illness and diabetes.

novel: One thing that’s intelligent or uncommon and new, as in by no means seen earlier than.

on-line: (n.) On the web. (adj.) A time period for what might be discovered or accessed on the web.

PCR: An acronym for polymerase chain response. It is a biochemical course of that repeatedly copies a specific sequence of DNA.

polymerase chain response or PCR: A biochemical course of that repeatedly copies a specific sequence of DNA. A associated, however considerably totally different method, copies genes expressed by the DNA in a cell. This system is named reverse transcriptase PCR. Like common PCR, it copies genetic materials in order that different strategies can determine points of the genes or match them to recognized genes.

protein: A compound created from a number of lengthy chains of amino acids. Proteins are a vital a part of all residing organisms. They type the idea of residing cells, muscle and tissues; additionally they do the work within cells. Among the many better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (additionally in blood) that try and battle infections. Medicines steadily work by latching onto proteins.

vary: The total extent or distribution of one thing. As an illustration, a plant or animal’s vary is the world over which it naturally exists.

Regeneron Worldwide Science and Engineering Truthful: (Regeneron ISEF) Initially launched in 1950, this competitors is one among three created (and nonetheless run) by the Society for Science. Every year now, roughly 1,800 highschool college students from greater than 80 international locations, areas, and territories are awarded the chance to showcase their impartial analysis at Regeneron ISEF and to compete for a median of just about $5 million in prizes.

salicylic acid: The principle ingredient in a broadly used ache reliever often called aspirin. It is a colorless crystalline compound that tends to scale back irritation. It takes its title from Salix, the Latin phrase for willow, a tree whose bark makes this compound. This similar compound will also be derived from a number of different plant sources.

stress: (in biology) An element — corresponding to uncommon temperatures, actions, moisture or air pollution — that impacts the well being of a species or ecosystem.

system: A community of elements that collectively work to realize some perform. As an illustration, the blood, vessels and coronary heart are major elements of the human physique’s circulatory system. Equally, trains, platforms, tracks, roadway alerts and overpasses are among the many potential elements of a nation’s railway system. System may even be utilized to the processes or concepts which can be a part of some technique or ordered set of procedures for getting a process finished.

tobacco: A plant cultivated for its leaves, which many individuals burn in cigars, cigarettes, and pipes. Tobacco leaves are also generally chewed. The principle lively drug in tobacco leaves is nicotine, a strong stimulant (and poison).

vaccine: (v. vaccinate) A organic combination that resembles a disease-causing agent. It’s given to assist the physique create immunity to a specific illness. The injections used to manage most vaccines are often called vaccinations.

virus: Tiny infectious particles consisting of genetic materials (RNA or DNA) surrounded by protein. Viruses can reproduce solely by injecting their genetic materials into the cells of residing creatures. Though scientists steadily confer with viruses as reside or lifeless, actually many scientists argue that no virus is really alive. It doesn’t eat like animals do, or make its personal meals the way in which crops do. It should hijack the mobile equipment of a residing cell so as to survive.

voltage: A pressure related to an electrical present that’s measured in items often called volts. Energy corporations use high-voltage to maneuver electrical energy over lengthy distances.


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